William’s Flat Smoke Dissipates Over the Weekend; Smoke Levels Grow in Alaska Near the Yukon.

August 10:

August 11:

Figure 1 and 2 from NOAA’s HMS show smoke levels caused by the William’s Flat Fire on August 10 and 11 respectively.  Notice how on Aug 10, smoke levels are moderate near the Colville reservation and only light in surrounding areas.  By August 11, smoke levels are no longer visible to the NOAA hazard map.  This is a large improvement from heavy smoke levels seen last week.  INCIWEB reports that although the fire is now 45% contained, it is still 44,670 acres large.  Despite improvements, authorities are still hard at work and local caution levels are still in effect.  Specifically, dry weather in the region still threatens the stability of the fire.

Figure 3 and 4 are also hazard maps provided by NOAA’s HMS and show smoke levels for Aug 10 and Aug 11 respectively.

Aug 10

Aug 11

Notice the development of heavy and moderate smoke levels in northern Alaska on August 11.  INCIWEB provided an update on Aug 11 for a fire in this area called the Chalkyitsik/Cornucopia Complex fire near Alaska’s border with the Yukon.  The complex was caused by lightening on July 9 and has an impressive size of 501,629 acres.  Fire authorities are making steady progress in containment but the burning of fuels, such as black spruce, are producing visible smoke.  The fire still poses a threat to the nearby Gwich’in villages of Chalkyitsik, Beaver, and Venetie.  Cloud cover makes satellite imaging of this area difficult to analyze.  

William’s Flat Fire Growing; Moderate Smoke heading for the East Coast

A general view of the Hazard Mapping System Smoke and Fire Product map shows light to moderate smoke levels across Alaska, Canada, and the northern CONUS (Figure 1).  Today’s map does not show the heavy smoke density seen yesterday in Alaska and British Columbia.  Most noticeable is the heavy smoke that is still emanating from the William’s Flat Fire in the western part of Washington State.  This high density smoke has traveled east into Idaho and the northwest of Montana .  It is also spreading north into the southern parts of British Columbia and Alberta.  Even northern Wyoming is affected (Figure 2).  INCIWEB reports that this fire has grown to 40,000 acres and 25% of the perimeter is contained.  1,059 personnel are reportedly working to quell the fire.  A satellite image from GOES-East obtained from NOAA’s Aerosol Watch shows the intensity of the growing smoke plume and how it extends into the surrounding areas (Figure 3).  The smoke is circled in red and is grayer than the nearby white clouds.  

Light and moderate smoke stretches across the north-central parts of the CONUS and the south-central parts of Canada.  A comparison to yesterday’s hazard map indicates a south-easterly flow of moderate smoke levels.  This trend suggests that these smoke levels may soon reach the east coast and affect air quality in the Atlantic region (Figure 4 and 5).

Aug 07, 2019

Aug 08, 2019

 

All satellite images are retrieved from Aerosol Watch provided by NOAA.

Heavy Smoke Caused by the William’s Flat Fire and Other Wildfires in Washington and Oregon; Similar Smoke Density in British Columbia

This Hazard Mapping Smoke and Fire Product image procured from GEOS-East and GOES-West satellite data shows heavy amounts of smoke in the Washington, Montana and Oregon regions (Figure 1).  According to INCIWEB, the Williams Flat Fire  west of Spokane is still active  with movement to the east/northeast.  It’s significant impact on the environment can be seen in the hazard map as the smoke stretches horizontally from east Washington.  Colville Tribes Emergency Services and  the Ferry County Sheriff’s Office have both issued Level 3 Evacuation Notification to residents.  This urges residents to “Leave Now”.  It is reported on INCIWEB that although homes are not in immediate danger, the main concern is that the fire will grow and block the only exit to the area.  The effects of the Devore Creek Fire can also be seen in Washington northwest of the Williams Flat Fire.   The HK Complex Fire is causing significant smoke levels in north-central Oregon.  Smoke from the Granite Gulch Fire can also be seen in Oregon’s northeast corner.  Details about these fires are readily found on INCIWEB.

A more general view of the satellite data shows heavy smoke over British Columbia caused by fires near the area.  Light to moderate smoke is also seen in various spots across Canada and Alaska (Figure 2).

Figure 3 and 4 below are satellite images from GOES-EAST itself.  Figure 3 is time stamped at 1431 UTC, while Figure 4 is time stamped at 1651 UTC.  Observe how the smoke from the William’s Flat Fire is spreading eastward over time.  The smoke is grayer than the white clouds and is inside the red circle.  Most noticeable is the movement of the smoke just east of Spokane.

Figure 5 below is an image from the VIIRS (NOAA-20) satellite which shows the smoke stretching from Alaska through British Columbia.  Once again the smoke is grayer than the white clouds and is inside the red circle.

 

All satellite images are retrieved from Aerosol Watch provided by NOAA.

Heavy Smoke in Northwestern CONUS; Lower Levels of Smoke Throughout North American Region

GOES-WEST images from the Hazard Mapping System Fire and Smoke Product show heavy smoke concentrations in parts of Montana, northern Oregon, and northeast Washington State (Figure 1).  This is due to several wildfires in these areas reported by INCIWEB.  Particularly heavy smoke continues to emanate from the still active Williams Flat Fire in Washington State south of the Colville Reservation (Figure 2).  INCIWEB  reports that this is a 18,000 acre fire caused by a lightening storm on August 2, which incited burning inside of a Game Reserve.  The fire has proven difficult to contain due to the rough terrain and unstable weather conditions.  Only 25% of the perimeter has been contained and local authorities continue to tend to the situation (Figure 3).

A more general view of the hazard map actually indicates lower levels of smoke throughout the North American regions than as of late.  This is a positive development for the region which has recently been largely covered with light smoke from fire activity.

 

Smoke from Williams Flats Fire Impacting Air Quality in WA; Code Red Ozone AQI in Southwestern U.S.

Figure 1. GOES-16 True Color Image for August 5, 2019 23:41 UTC.

NOAA’s Hazard Mapping System Fire and Smoke Product reported a region of heavy density smoke observed over portions of Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, and into North Dakota. The smoke was captured in the GOES-16 and GOES-17 retrievals. The GOES-16 “True Color” (Figure 1) image (courtesy NOAA’s AerosolWatch) from shows the locations and associated smoke plumes with the Williams Flats Fire in Keller, WA. This fire started August 2 after a band of early morning thunderstorms with lightning moved across the eastern portion of the Colville Indian Reservation, as reported by INCIWEB.

The AOD associated with this smoke ranged between 0.2-1 over his region (Figure 2: GOES-17 AOD Composite).

Figure 2. GOES-17 AOD Composite Image (21-24 UTC) for August 5, 2019.
Figure 3. PM2.5 Concentrations from Air Quality Stations in Spokane, WA.

The smoke is impacting the local air quality as shown in the PM2.5 timeseries (Figure 3) from air quality monitoring stations in Spokane, WA (data source: AirNowtech.org). PM2.5 concentrations ranging between 18-128 up/m3 after 2:00 pm PDT (14:00 LST), and is the source of the Code Orange and Yellow AQI (Figure 4, Airnow animation) in the Pacific Northwest.

The rest of the nation experienced for most of the day Code Yellow (Moderate AQI), except locations in Northern Michigan and the Southwestern U.S.. Southwestern Ozone Code Orange (Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups) AQI levels were fueled by the excessive heat experienced today over the region.

Figure 4. Airnow AQI Animation for August 5, 2019.

Code Orange and Red Ozone Levels in California; Cloud Capped Boundary Layer at UMBC

https://alg.umbc.edu/wp-content/uploads/2019/08/Lufft_UMBC_20190804.png Data from the CHM15k (Figure 1) and the UMBC Micro-Pulse Lidar (Figure 2) at UMBC both support the presence of aerosols in the boundary layer throughout the day.

GOES-16 image (Figure 3) shows below 0.5 levels of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) in the middle of the day over much of the Continental United States and southern Canada, particularly in the central region.  Clouds hindered a good AOD retrieval over Baltimore.

The EPA AIRNow Map shows Code Orange and Code Red for ozone levels in southern California for the day.  This may be associated with high temperatures experienced in the region.

Peak Ozone (8-hour) - https://files.airnowtech.org/airnow/2019/20190804/peak_o3_ca_nv.jpg

Moderate Ozone Levels in Baltimore; Code Red PM Levels in Washington State Due to Local Fire

Cloud cover over the Baltimore area made aerosol data acquisition difficult through GOES-16 Imagery (Figure 1).  The EPA AIRNow Air Quality Map shows Moderate levels of Ozone throughout the Baltimore-D.C. area (Figure 2).

AIRNow also shows Code Red AQI levels due to particulate matter near Spokane, WA (Figure 3).  INCIWEB indicates these levels are due to the smoke produced by the ongoing Williams Flat fire near the Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake.  This fire began yesterday on August 2 and has produced large smoke plumes (Figure 4).

 

Moderate Ozone Levels in Baltimore Region; Unhealthy Ozone Levels in Southern California and Arizona; Smoke over Alaska, North CONUS and Canadian Regions

For the Baltimore region, the EPA AIRNow Air Quality Map shows Good (Code Green) air quality in the morning and nighttime (Figure 1).  In the middle of the day, Moderate (Code Yellow) AQI levels develop and recede.  Unhealthy (Code Red) and Unsafe for Sensitive Groups (Code Orange) ozone levels can be seen in both southern California and Arizona during midday (Figure 2).  All these circumstances illustrate how hot portions of the day can exacerbate ozone levels and create safety concerns.

20190802_airnow

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Hazard Mapping System Fire and Smoke Product from NOAA reports the  continuing effects of Russian wildfires and Canadian smoke plumes on regions of Alaska, Canada, the Great lakes, and the North Atlantic.

Code Orange Particulate Matter Levels in Montana; Heavy Smoke in Northwest Canada and East Alaska

The EPA AIRNow Air Quality Map shows a large area of Moderate (Code Yellow) and Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups (Code Orange) levels of particulate matter in the Montana region east of Missoula (Figure 1).  This is most likely due to several wildfires in the region that remain active.  The Beeskove Fire near Missoula (Figure 2) and the North Hills Fire near Helena (Figure 3) both began in late July and remain active through today.  Images are provided by INCIWEB.

The Hazard Mapping System Fire and Smoke Product uses GOES-WEST data to show moderate and heavy smoke concentrations in the Northwest Territories of Canada and the eastern areas of Alaska.  The heavy smoke near Alaska is attributed to large complex fires in its central and eastern regions.  Light smoke concentrations can also be seen from the edge of Russia all across Canada,  Greenland, northern regions of the CONUS, and parts of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans (Figure 4).

 

Moderate Ozone AQI Levels in the Eastern US; Code Red AQI in San Bernandino, CA; Smoke over Canada and Atlantic Ocean

Figure 1. Airnow AQI Loop for July 17, 2019.

The Airnow animation above shows Moderate (Code Yellow) AQI levels along the Eastern US (Figure 1) as a surface high pressure system sets up over this region, and its associated light winds and high temperatures enhance ozone production. Code Yellow Ozone AQI levels were also reported in the Southwestern US, but Unhealthy (Code Red) AQI levels were experienced in locations along San Bernandino, CA (Figure 2).

NOAA’s Hazard Mapping System Fire and Smoke Product (Figure 3) reported the presence of smoke from several wildfires in Alaska blowing east into Canada as well as smoke from Canadian fires over Maine and extending into the Atlantic Ocean.

Figure 3. NOAA Hazard Mapping System Fire and Smoke Product for July 17, 2019